Recess has traditionally been a cornerstone of the school day as it provides children with an essential opportunity to play with their peers within the confines of the school yard.1 It is defined as regularly scheduled periods within the elementary school day for unstructured physical activity and play.2 Experts believe that it is a necessary component of the school day and should not be withheld for punitive or academic reasons.3 The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that recess should complement and not replace physical education.4 Despite this recommendation, the apparent demise of school recess continues to spark debate in North America.5
The Need for Recess
Children spend upwards of 30 hours per week at school, meaning that ample opportunity for recess is crucial to ensuring that children can get their daily dose of play. Play during recess contributes to children’s physical activity levels, giving them a break from academic work and offers a chance to improve their social skills.4 Despite these benefits, an increasing emphasis on academic achievement has resulted in more time spent in the classroom thereby relegating recess to an afterthought in many jurisdictions.6 This is troubling as eliminating recess can have the opposite effect.7 Time spent during recess has been found to improve grades and standardized test scores, as well as indicators of cognitive skills (i.e. attention, concentration, and memory), and academic behaviours such as attention and the ability to remain on task.8
Interviews with elementary school children reveal that physical education classes do not provide children with the opportunity to organize their own games and choose peer groups.9 Recess provides one of the few forums for children to interact with their peers on their own terms10 as classroom instruction is often focused on individual learning and free play after-school is diminishing. While play at recess is important, there are barriers that exist. Bullying in the form of equipment theft, vandalism, and peer intimidation that is gender or weight-related, are negatively correlated with active play,11 prevents children from playing, and can contribute to negative experiences.9 Bullying may place a heavier burden on teachers who must spend time dealing with these incidents. Another barrier includes teachers or principals withholding recess as a punitive measure. This is counterproductive because without outdoor play, children are missing opportunities for social and emotional learning such as the ability to control aggression and regulate feelings of anger and frustration.9
In Canada, over 80% of schools have one or more active school policies, including recess.12 However, school yard bans on hard balls14 and rules outlawing any physical contact,14 including games like tag, show that we are not immune to policies limiting opportunities for free play.
Cold temperatures are known to deter children’s outdoor play15 and making sure that children are adequately dressed for frigid temperatures complicates the issue. Environment Canada advises that wind chill temperatures of -28°C to -39°C pose a high risk of frostbite and hypothermia, and exposed skin can freeze in 10 to 30 minutes.16 This concern is reflected in school board policies which prevent children from playing outdoors to avoid the potential harms of exposure to inclement weather. Many school boards in Ontario recommend shortening recess or keeping children indoors altogether if temperatures drop below -20°C to -28°C.17,18,19 Similar policies are in place in other parts of the country such as Saskatoon20 and Winnipeg21 which keeps children inside at -27°C and -28°C, respectively. In Newfoundland and Labrador, recess takes place outside unless the wind chill goes below -45°C to -55°C, depending on the age of the students.22 While there is limited empirical evidence regarding seasonality and the impact on outdoor play during recess, children are known to be less active during the winter months and in inclement weather.23
Playground Equipment and Loose Parts
Playground equipment facilitates outdoor play and there is evidence supporting the notion that loose and movable parts and a greater variety of play structures engage children.11 This is not to understate the importance of providing well maintained playground equipment and sporting facilities, which are associated with active play in older children, but to underline the importance of providing children with a variety of resources that are age and developmentally appropriate.24 Children spend more time engaged on playgrounds that incorporate loose parts. Similarly, children at adventure playgrounds with loose parts were more active and more likely to interact with their peers than on traditional playgrounds with fixed equipment.
Strategies to increase outdoor play are necessary, but they need to be supported by policies that promote the physical, academic, and social benefits of recess. When recess breaks are extended, more children are engaged and play happens at a more vigorous intensity.11 Policy issues that infringe upon children’s right to play include over-supervision, extensive safety rules, and access to diverse equipment and play spaces.25 Interviews with children indicate the importance of teacher’s supervision, but inadequate or excessive supervision can deter active play, as can excessive safety rules that ban running or prevent the use of equipment.25 Recess policies should be addressed from a balanced approach, considering safety alongside the benefits of outdoor play.
1. Jarrett, O. S. (2013). A Research-Based Case for Recess. Published Online by the US Play Coalition.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Promoting better health for young people through physical activity and sports; 2000. Appendix 7. Available at: http://www2.ed.gov/offices/OSDFS/physedapndc.pdf.
3. Murray, R., Ramstetter, C., Devore, C., Allison, M., Ancona, R., Barnett, S, Young, T. 2013. The Crucial Role of Recess in School. Pediatrics, 131(1), 183–188. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-2993
4. Increasing Children’s Physical Activity During the School Day Hatfield
5. The Atlantic. 2016. Why Kids Need Recess. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/12/why-kids-need-recess/505850/
6. Deruy E. Learning Through Play. The Atlantic, 2016. Available at: www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/09/learning-through-play/499703/
7. Burris and Burris. 2011.Outdoor Play and Learning. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership.
8. Center for Disease Control [CDC]. (2010). Executive Summary of The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.027
9. Jarrett, O. S. (2013). A Research-Based Case for Recess. Published Online by the US Play Coalition.
10. Pellegrini, A. D. (2008). The research debate: A disjuncture between educational policy and scientific research. American Journal of Play, 1(2), 181–191.
11. Hyndman, B., Benson, A., & Teleford, A. (2016). Active Play exploring the influences on children’s school playground activities. American Journal of Play, 8(3), 325–344.
12. Barnes, J. (2016). The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth: are Canadian kids too tired to move? 1–76.
13. The Canadian Press. Toronto school bans hard balls. CBC, 2011. Available at: www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-school-bans-hard-balls-1.1080366 (Accessed October 5, 2016).
14. CTV News. 2013. New No-Touch Policy Introduced at B.C Elementary School. Available at: http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/new-no-touch-policy-introduced-at-b-c-elementary-school-1.1528691
15. The Star. 2011. How Cold is too Cold for Recess? Available at: https://www.thestar.com/life/parent/2011/01/21/how_cold_is_too_cold_for_recess.html
16. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2017.Wind Chill: The chilling facts. Available at: http://www.ec.gc.ca/meteo-weather/default.asp?lang=En&n=5FBF816A-1#X-201501151122196
17. Halton Catholic District School Board. 2014. Administrative Procedure. Available at: http://www.hcdsb.org/Board/Policies/PoliciesProcedures/VI-39%20Inclement%20Weather%20Safety.pdf
18. Ottawa Carleton District School Board. ND. Extreme Weather Conditions-School Protocol. Available at: http://www.ocdsb.ca/ab-ocdsb/p-n-p/Policies%20and%20Procedures/PR%20681%20SCO%20-%20Extreme%20Weather%20Conditions-School%20Protocol.pdf
19. Ryerson Community School. ND. Weather Guidelines. Available at: http://schoolweb.tdsb.on.ca/ryersoncommunity/WeatherGuidelines.aspx
20. Saskatoon Public Schools. ND. Severe Weather. Available at: https://www.saskatoonpublicschools.ca/division/severeweather/Pages/default.aspx
21. Winnipeg School Division. ND. Frequently Asked Questions. Available at: https://www.winnipegsd.ca/FAQ/Pages/Default.aspx
22. CBC News. 2015. What’s Too Cool for School? NLTA Wants One Temperature for Winter School Closings. Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/what-s-too-cool-for-school-nlta-wants-1-temperature-for-winter-school-closings-1.2895327
23. Tucker, J. Gilliland. (2007). The effect of season and weather on physical activity: a systematic review. Public Health. 121(12): 909–922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2007.04.009
24. Hyndman, B., Telford, A., Finch, C. F., & Benson, A. C. (2012). Moving Physical Activity beyond the School Classroom: A Social-Ecological Insight for Teachers of the Facilitators and Barriers to Students’ Non-Curricular Physical Activity. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(2), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2012v37n2.2
25. Brussoni, M., Gibbons, R., Gray, C., Ishikawa, T., Sandseter, E. B. H., Bienenstock, A, Tremblay, M. S. (2015). What is the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children? A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Vol. 12). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606423